al. Zeppelin (m), Luftschiff (n), Fr. Zeppelin (m), Eng. Zeppelin, airship. A manageable balloon airship filled with a light gas to give it the ability to remain suspended in the air. The biggest feature that distinguishes the airship from the balloon is the propulsion and rudder system (See. Balloon). Helium is used as gas in the airship.
The airship looks like a ship with an aerodynamic structure, the skeleton of which is formed by the combination of many metal balloon cells. The airship gains and loses altitude by filling and discharging light gas into the balloon cells, and its forward movement is provided by a propeller engine. Guiding the airship, gaining or losing altitude is also provided with rudders. In principle, the structure and movement of the airship in the air is similar to the structure and movement of the submarine under water. (See. Submarine)
The historical development of the airship begins with the first balloon flight in 1783. In 1851, when a French inventor named Henri Giffard developed a three-horsepower steam-powered propeller engine, the balloon was enabled to move in the horizontal direction. The internal combustion engine drill began in 1872 with the German engineer Paul Haenlein. In October 1883, the first zeppelin powered by an electric motor was built. The LZ-1 Airship, built by the Germans in 1900, was a large airship with a length of 140 meters and a diameter of 13 meters. This ship consisted of 24 longitudinal and 16 circular transverse elements and was speeding 33 kilometers per hour with its 16 horsepower engine. The balance controls in the horizontal and fore-aft directions were made by adjusting the gas pressures of the balloon chambers located both at the rudder and at the end. This was followed by the LZ-126 "Los Angeles", which the Germans made to the USA as war reparations. LZ-127 “Graf Zeppelin” built in 1928 carried 13,110 people and 200 tons of cargo in 590 trips. The LZ-129 “Hindenburg” airship, built in 1936, had a 1100 horsepower propulsion engine and was speeding 110 kilometers per hour. Atlantic expeditions were organized with this zeppelin and 1002 people were transported in ten expeditions. LZ-130 “Graf Zeppelin” made in 1938 was working with helium. With the start of the Second World War, the construction of the airship stopped. Today, studies are carried out on various conveniences.