What is rhodopsin?

What is rhodopsin?


In the retinal rods of vertebrates, the red photopigment decomposes into retinal by light.


Rhodopsin (also known as visual purple) is a photosensitive receptor protein involved in visual phototransfection. It is named after the ancient Greek ῥόδον (rhódon) for "rose", its pinkish color and ὄψις (ópsis) for "sight". Rhodopsin is a biological pigment found in the rods of the retina and is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). Rhodopsin is extremely light sensitive and thus enables vision in low light conditions. When rhodopsin is exposed to light, it immediately photobleaches. In humans, it is completely regenerated in about 30 minutes; After that the rods are more sensitive.
Rhodopsin was discovered by Franz Christian Boll in 1876. Even red. A chromoprotein containing retinal (vitamin A 1 aldehyde) as a chromophore. It is located in the outer segment of the dark, vibrant red retinal rod. When it hits light, it transforms and decomposes yellow retinal and protein opsin, and furthermore, it is converted into vitamin A 1 by enzymatic action. The separation of light and dark is due to the fact that the excitation due to the temporary membrane potential change occurring in the rod-shaped body cells is transmitted to the optic nerve. In the dark, rhodopsin is resynthesized from this vitamin 1 and opsin A. Vitamin A deficiency causes night blindness because it cannot be synthesized again.
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