summaryRegions north of the Arctic Circle centered on the North Pole
overviewThe North Pole (/ˈɑːrktɪk/ or /ˈɑːrtɪk/) is the northernmost polar region on Earth. The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean, adjacent seas and Alaska (USA), Northern Canada (Canada), Finland, Greenland (Kingdom of Denmark), Iceland, Norway, Russia, and Sweden. The terrain in the Arctic has seasonally variable snow and ice cover and includes tundra with predominantly treeless permafrost (permanently frozen underground ice). The Arctic seas contain seasonal sea ice in many places.
The Arctic region is a unique area among Earth's ecosystems. For example, cultures in the region and Arctic indigenous peoples have adapted to its cold and extreme conditions. In recent years, Arctic sea ice decline has been caused by global warming. Polar life includes organisms living in ice, zooplankton and phytoplankton, fish and marine mammals, birds, land animals, plants, and human communities. Arctic terrain is bordered by the subarctic. 90° north latitude point. It is almost in the center of the Arctic Ocean, where the axis of the Earth's rotation intersects with the surface of the northern hemisphere. In over-conquest, it is the first time the US pear arrives north along the meridian 70 degrees west of the Greenland side and arrives on April 6, 1909. → Arctic region / Antarctica
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